Garden construction skills- paving pathway with stone

2018-6-2 10:59:50    

 -Alvin, Juli Industrial Co., Ltd.


First, prepare for construction

 1. Material preparation

Paving material’s preparation is the most time-consuming part of garden’s pathway project. To designing the paving method, the lofting should base on the actual size of the paving plaza, then solve the corner adjustment issue and make transition plan for garden-pathway junction. After that, determine the quantity of various granite and specification and quantity of curbstone. In the actual construction, the above matters are often encountered.

 2. Site lofting

According to the construction coordinate grid drawn by the design drawing, all the coordinate points are set on the site and piling. Then, based on the coordinate pile point, according to the square design drawing, the site boundary line is released on the site ground, the scope line of the main ground facilities and the zero line between the excavation area and the fill area.

 3. Terrain review

Compare the vertical design plan of Parkway Square and review the topography of the site. The natural ground elevation data of each coordinate point and control point shall be measured and supplemented on-site if there is any missing information.


Second, site formation and slope

1. Excavation and fill construction

The filling sequence of the filling area should be deep and shallow first, firstly layered and deep-filled, and then filled with shallow areas. Each layer is filled with a layer. Until the elevation of the design. The fertile soil suitable for planting excavated in the excavation process should be temporarily stacked on the side of the square and later filled into flower beds and plantations.

 2. Site formation and slope searching

After the completion of the excavation and filling works, the new ground to be excavated and filled will be sorted out. To level the ground, change the flatness of the ground to within 0.05m. According to the point filling and excavation height data and the designed slope data indicated by each coordinate pile, the site is sloped to ensure that the ground in all parts of the site basically reaches the designed slope.

 3. According to the existence of buildings, garden roads, pipelines and other factors beside the site, determine the vertical connection of the edge zone and adjust the elevation of the connection point. Also confirm the position of the surface drainage outlet, adjust the elevation of the bottom of the drainage channel, so that the square ground and the surrounding ground level are more natural, and the contradiction between the drainage and the channel is reduced to the lowest.


Third, the construction of the ground

 1. Base construction

Construction procedure: paving gravel→regulation→dispersion filler→compaction→laying and caulking →rolling

 (1) Paving gravel

A few blocks of 10cm square wood or bricks can be used on the basis of compacted plain soil, with manual paving gravel (crushed stone strength is not less than 8, hard and soft stone cannot be used). With a calibrated paving thickness, wood blocks or bricks move with the shop. The gravel is once crushed on the paving and the iron fork is used for feeding. The size of the granules is required to be evenly distributed, and the vertical and horizontal sections meet the required thickness. The dust on the bottom of the material should be cleared.

 (2) Regulator

Rolling with a 10-12T roller, the speed of grinding should be slow, about 25-30m per minute, and the rear wheel overlap width 1/2. Roll along the repaired shoulders first and then press it twice, starting from the edge of the road. Press to the center. After roller compaction, the road arches and flatness were inspected using road arch bridge plates and small wire ropes. Partially uneven, it is necessary to go high. To go high is to evenly remove the excess gravel and must not be shoveled out with shovels. The padding is to loosen the low-lying part and evenly spread the gravel. After meeting the elevation, sprinkle a small amount of water and continue rolling until the initial stability of the gravel is not significantly displaced. This stage is generally required to press 3-4 times.


(3) Filling material

Coarse sand or lime soil (8-12% of the lime dose) is evenly sprinkled on the gravel, sweep it into the gravel joint with a broom, and then sprinkle the water evenly with a sprinkler or watering can. The void from the flow of water is then replenished with sand or ash to the point where there is no more space and the tip of the gravel is exposed.

 (4) Compaction

Use 10-12 tons of roller to continue rolling, slightly faster speed, 60-70m per minute, generally 4-6 times of grinding (depending on the soft and hard stone may be), avoid rolling too much, so as not to stone too broken.

 (5) Spreading joints

After compaction of large pieces of gravel, it is immediately rolled with a 10-12T compactor. Rolling is usually 2-3 times, rolling until the surface is flat and stable and there are no obvious wheel marks.

 (6) Rolling

After the jointing material is well-distributed, immediately use a 10-12T roller to perform roller compaction. The 10-12T roller will be used for roller compaction. Generally, it needs to be pressed 2-3 times, and rolling is performed until the surface is flat and stable without significant wheel marks.

 (7) Then conduct quality assessment and visa.


2. Stabilization layer construction

(1) Put a line at a fixed point on the finished grassroots, every 10cm is a point. According to the design elevation, the middle line and the side pile are placed on the edge line. Place baffles on the entire side of the square. The height of the baffle is more than 10cm, but not too high, and the baffle has a good elevation line.

 (2) After reviewing, inspecting and confirming the correctness of the square line and design elevation points, the next step can be entered.

(3) Sprinkle a layer of water or 1:3 mortar on the dried base before pouring the concrete.

 (4) Prepare, pour, and compact the concrete according to the designed material proportions, and use a ruler with a length of 1m or more to flatten the top surface, dry the top surface a little, and then use the sanding board to reach the design elevation. Construction should pay attention to make the cross slope and longitudinal slope of the road.

 (5) After the construction of the concrete surface is completed, the maintenance should be started in time, and the maintenance period is more than 7 days. The maintenance period after the winter construction should be a little longer. Can be covered with wet straw, wet sand and plastic film on the road for conservation.


3. Surface construction

 (1) Construction preparation

material:Stone species, specifications, patterns, and colors are accepted according to design drawings and should be classified and stored.

Operating conditions:

1) Make a waterproof layer and a protective layer on the wall surface of the pillars, ceilings (ceilings), ceilings and floors.

2) The construction of the embedded parts of the door frames and floors and the pipelines for the hydropower equipment were completed and checked.

3) A variety of riser holes and other gaps should be filled with fine stone concrete blockage (small gaps can be cement mortar plugging).

4) A horizontal ink line of +50cm is played around the wall. Center lines (crosshairs) and flower sample dividers.


(2) Operation process:

1) Clean the back of the stone plate first and keep it moist while laying.

2) According to the horizontal line and the center line (cross line), lay out the standard lines (closed roads) on the left and right sides of each bay and hallway according to the number of the pre-arrangement, and then make a pull line.

3) Before laying, the base layer should be moistened with water, and then the cement slurry should be brushed (the cement ratio is about 0.5). The cement slurry should be used with the brush to spread mortar, and there should be no air drying phenomenon.

4) Dry and hard cement mortar (usually 1:3 in order to moist loose, hand-held group does not drain water prevail) leveling layer, virtual shop thickness is appropriate 25-30cm, higher when put on the stone plate It is advisable to finish the surface approximately 3~4cm.) Use iron trowel (gray spoon) to make a smooth trowel. Then pre-pave the stone slabs and align the vertical and horizontal joints. Tap the middle of the board with a wooden hammer to shake the mortar to the laying. After the height, lift the slate and check that the surface of the mortar matches the bottom of the slate (fill with mortar if there is an empty spot). Spray a suitable amount of water on the surface of the mortar with a watering can, then spread evenly a layer of cement powder and align the slate with the stone. paste. The four corners of the shop should be landed at the same time. Use a wooden hammer to knock hard to levelling.

5) Paving sequence should be lined up from the line to the line. If the gap width is not required by the design, it shall not be greater than 1mm for granite and marble and not greater than 21mm for terrazzo blocks.

6) After 24 hours of paving, check that the surface of stone slabs is not broken and empty. Then use a dilute cement (reconstructed with color and stone plates) to fill the joints with a brush and clean it with a dry cloth until no residue or smear occurs. until. Pavement and stacking of objects are prohibited within two days of paving slabs.


Sticking board

Before plastering, wet the stone plate with water, and the angle plate at the corner is cut at an angle of 45 degrees.

The base watering soaked evenly rub prime slurry, while brushing paste.

A pair of skirting boards shall be inlaid on both ends of the wall, the height of the upper jaw shall be within the same horizontal line, and the thickness of the protruding wall shall be the same. Then, along the two skirting boards, draw a pass line and use a 1:2 cement mortar to insert the skirting board in order.

Check the smoothness and verticality of the skirting board when lining.

The board is to be indirectly seamed with the seam on the ground.


(3) Quality standards

1) Guaranteed items

1 The type and quality of the plates used in the surface layer must meet the design requirements.

2 The combination of the surface layer and the base layer must be firm and free from emptying.

2) Basic items

1 The surface quality of the plate surface should meet the following requirements:

Qualified: uniform color, no cracks, missing corners and missing defects.

Excellent: The surface is clean, the pattern is clear, the color is the same, the seam is even, the periphery is straight, the plate is free of cracks, missing corners and missing defects.

Inspection method: observation and inspection


2 Floor drain and flooding should meet the following requirements:

Qualified: The slope satisfies the drainage requirements, and there is no leakage without pouring water.

Excellent: The slope direction meets the design requirements, and the water is not poured. There is no accumulated water, and the joint with the floor drain is tight and firm, with no leakage.

Inspection method: observation and splashing water inspection.

3 The laying of the baseboard shall comply with the following provisions:

Qualified: The seams are flat and the bond is basically solid. The thickness of the wall is suitable.

Excellent: The surface is clean; the seams are even and uniform; the height is consistent; the combination is firm and the thickness of the wall is suitable.

Test method: tap and observe with a small hammer.

4 Steps and paving steps should meet the following requirements:

Qualified: The porosity of the seam is basically the same, and the height difference between two adjacent steps is not more than 15mm. Anti-slip straight.

Excellent: The gap width is the same, and the height difference between two adjacent steps is not more than 10mm. The anti-slip strip is straight.

Inspection method: observation and ruler check.

5 rims should meet the following requirements:

Qualification: The material and dimensions of the flank adjoining the surface meet the design requirements and construction specifications.

Excellent: On the basis of the pass, the corners are neat and smooth.

Inspection method: observation and ruler check.

3) Allowable deviation

The allowable deviations and inspection methods for the floor surface of the plate building shall comply with the following table.


4. Construction precautions

1) Avoid engineering quality problems

1 Hollow stone slabs and grass roots: mainly due to the grassroots cleaning is not clean; there is not enough moisture; the mortar is too thin (the mortar should not be less than 25-30mm, and the block stock should not be less than 20mm thick; The mortar is not full and the water-cement ratio is too large.

2 The size of the wall appears: because the room is separated by a net size, the net size is not square; the board seam is not accurately grasped when paving, and the size control of the material is not strict enough.

3 The unevenness of two adjacent boards: due to the unevenness of the board itself; improper operation when laying the board; trampling of the board in the morning after laying, etc. (sometimes loosening of the board), and it is strictly prohibited on the two people within days after being laid.


2) Major safety measures

1 When loading and unloading stone slabs, gently handle them to prevent them from pinching or rubbing their feet.

2 When using portable electric vehicles, pass the test run and install the leakage protection switch and reliable grounding device. The operator must wear protective glasses and insulating rubber gloves.

3 When using the steel derrick for vertical transportation, the upper and lower signals should be contacted, and the loading and unloading operations must be performed until the cage is stable.

4 When cleaning the ground, do not throw debris from the window, balcony, leaving the hole and other debris.


5 Night shifts and operations in the dark should use 36V low-voltage lighting. Basement lighting uses no more than 12V.